Coronavidae viruses, such as SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV, cause severe lower respiratory tract infection, acute respiratory distress syndrome and extrapulmonary manifestations, such as diarrhea and fever, eventually leading to death. Fast, accurate, reproductible, and cost-effective SARS-CoV-2 identification can be achieved employing nano-biosensors, reinforcing conventional methodologies to avoid the spread of COVID-19 within and across communities. Nano-biosensors built using gold, silver, graphene, InO nanowire and iron oxide nanoparticles, Quantum Dots and carbon nanofibers have been successfully employed to detect specific virus antigens – nucleic acid sequences and/or proteins -or host antibodies produced in response to viral infection. Biorecognition counterpart molecules have been immobilized on the surface of these nanomaterials, leading to selective virus detection by optical or electrochemical transducer systems. This systematic review assessed studies on described and tested immunonsensors and genosensors designed from distinct nanomaterials available at the Pubmed, Scopus, and Science Direct databases. Twenty-three nano biosensors were found suitable for unequivocal coronavirus detection in clinical samples. Nano-biosensors coupled to RT-LAMP/RT-PCR assays can optimize RNA extraction, reduce analysis times and/or eliminate sophisticated instrumentation. Although promising for the diagnosis of Coronavidae family members, further trials in large populations must be adequately and rigorously conducted to address nano-biosensor applicability in the clinical practice for early coronavirus infection detection.
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