Tumor microRNAs (miRNAs) are released to biofluids directly or indirectly. Although urinary miRNAs are promising non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), their clinical application is challenging for technical reasons. We examined the efficacy of urinary hsv2-miR-H9 to hsa-miR-3659 ratio as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker of PCa.
The expression of urinary miRNAs was quantified by real-time PCR in 116 samples from 53 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 63 patients with PCa. The miRNA expression ratio was calculated using an upregulated miRNA (hsv2-miR-H9) as the numerator and a downregulated miRNA (hsa-miR-3659) as the denominator.
The urinary miR-H9 to miR-3659 ratio was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH controls (p<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of the urinary miRNA expression ratio was comparable with that of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve comparison, p=0.287). The area under the curve for urinary miRNA expression ratio was 0.862 and that for PSA was 0.642 in the "PSA gray zone" (3-10 ng/mL) (ROC curve comparison, p=0.034). The use of the urinary miRNA expression ratio would have prevented 70.6% of unnecessary prostate biopsies; however, 28.6% of PCa cases could be missed in patients within the PSA gray zone.
The expression ratio of urinary miR-H9 to miR-3659 could be a relevant non-invasive biomarker for PCa diagnosis, particularly for patients within the PSA gray zone.

© The Korean Urological Association.