This study tested the construct validity (i.e., factor structure) of the Persian Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) on a sample of male prisoners.
All the participants (mean±SD age = 39.44±7.94 years) completed three scales-the Persian MAAS, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis with differential item functioning (DIF) were applied to examine the construct validity of the MAAS. Specifically, the DIF was tested across different insomnia status (using ISI with a cutoff of 15), psychiatric well-being status (using GHQ-12 with a cutoff of 12), and age (using mean age of 39.44 as the cutoff).
The CFA results showed a single factor solution for the Persian MAAS. The Rasch results showed all MAAS items fit in the construct (infit mean square [MnSq] = 0.72 to 1.41; outfit MnSq = 0.74 to 1.39) without displaying DIF items (DIF contrast = -0.34 to 0.31 for insomnia condition; -0.22 to 0.25 for psychiatric well-being; -0.26 to 0.29 for age).
The Persian version of the MAAS is, therefore, a valid instrument to measure mindfulness among Iranian male prisoners.