This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative (CMQCC) admission risk criteria for stratifying postpartum hemorrhage risk in a large obstetrics population.
Using detailed electronic health record data, we classified 261,964 delivery hospitalizations from Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals between 2010 and 2017 into high-, medium-, and low-risk groups based on CMQCC criteria. We used logistic regression to assess associations between CMQCC risk groups and postpartum hemorrhage using two different postpartum hemorrhage definitions, standard postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ≥1,000 mL) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (based on transfusion, laboratory, and blood loss data). Among the low-risk group, we also evaluated associations between additional present-on-admission factors and severe postpartum hemorrhage.
Using the standard definition, postpartum hemorrhage occurred in approximately 5% of hospitalizations ( = 13,479), with a rate of 3.2, 10.5, and 10.2% in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. Severe postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 824 hospitalizations (0.3%), with a rate of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.3% in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. For either definition, the odds of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly higher in medium- and high-risk groups compared with the low-risk group. Over 40% of postpartum hemorrhages occurred in hospitalizations that were classified as low risk. Among the low-risk group, risk factors including hypertension and diabetes were associated with higher odds of severe postpartum hemorrhage.
We found that the CMQCC admission risk assessment criteria stratified women by increasing rates of severe postpartum hemorrhage in our sample, which enables early preparation for many postpartum hemorrhages. However, the CMQCC risk factors missed a substantial proportion of postpartum hemorrhages. Efforts to improve postpartum hemorrhage risk assessment using present-on-admission risk factors should consider inclusion of other nonobstetrical factors.
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