We investigated whether serum tumor markers (STMs) represent a valuable noninvasive tool to predict epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
A retrospective analysis was performed for 143 NSCLC patients at the Peking University International Hospital from December 2014 to December 2019. EGFR mutations in the tumor tissues were identified by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and next generation sequencing (NGS). The relationships between EGFR mutation and several clinicopathological features were analyzed.
EGFR mutation were found more frequently in female (56.67%, P = 0.01), never-smokers (55.26%, P = 0.004), and those with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) (52.17%, P < 0.001). The positive mutation rate for the EGFR gene were higher in the squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA)group (≤1.5 ng/ml) and in the gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (preGRP) increased group (≥69.2 pg/ml), and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that females (Odd ratio [OR]: 2.435, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.232, 4.813, P = 0.01) and never-smokers (OR = 0.370; CI = 0.186, 0.734; P = 0.004), lung adenocarcinoma patients (OR = 9.091; CI = 2.599, 21.800; P = 0.001), the SCC group (≤1.5 ng/ml) (OR = 0.331, CI = 0.120, 0.914; P = 0.033), and the preGRP group (≥69.2 pg/ml) (OR = 5.478, CI = 1.462, 20.528; P = 0.012) patients were risk factors for EGFR gene mutation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that lung ADC and proGRP elevation were independent risk factors for predicting EGFR gene positivity (P < 0.05).
STMs are associated with mutant EGFR status and could be integrated with other clinical factors to facilitate the classification of EGFR mutation status among NSCLC patients.

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