Vitamin D (VD) has been classically associated with calcium homeostasis and bone mineral density since it has a key role on mineralization and resorption. Immunomodulatory effects have been attributable to VD; low concentrations of VD have been associated with elevation of inflammatory markers. Inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic neurodegenerative suffering, whose etiology is still unknown, is directly related to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 17 and interleukin 1β who play an important role in this physiopathology. Nowadays, even though additional studies have linked MS’s clinical signs with low VD concentration, there is scarce information of this association in people from regions with sufficient sun exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum VD and cytokine concentrations, and bone density, in Mexican people with MS.
Vitamin D (25OHD), interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and interleukin 17 concentrations of twenty-five volunteers with MS were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone mineral density and body composition assessment was performed by dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry.
A mean concentration of 17.3 ± 4.6 ng/ml of 25OHD was obtained, in a range of 5.15 to 25.71 ng/ml; when international advisory bodies thresholds were applied 76% of the participants exhibited some degree of VD inadequacy. Pro-inflammatory markers were detectable among the participants: interleukin 1β in 100%, interleukin 6 in 64%, whereas interleukin 17 was found in 24% of the volunteers. Bone mineral density below the expected for the age was found in 8% of the participants, with lumbar spine as the most affected anatomic region. Non-significant correlations were found between VD and bone mineral density (Z-score) or pro-inflammatory markers.
Although non-significant correlations were found between VD and bone mineral density or cytokines, it is important to highlight that an important percentage of our participants exhibited some degree of VD inadequacy, an unknown fact for them, since these are not included in routine clinical evaluations. The low concentrations of VD among this sample regardless of annual UVB sun exposure may suggest the involvement of endogenous and not environmental factors. Further works are needed in order to deepen the physiological causes and effects of VD deficiency in people with MS.

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