Examine recent evidence of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses regarding the effect of maternal vitamin D status and supplementation over obstetrical and offspring outcomes.
Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] progressively declines during pregnancy because of fetal physiological demands and adjustments. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy in women with low vitamin D status may improve fetal growth and reduce the risks for small-for-gestational-age, preeclampsia, preterm birth, and gestational diabetes. Mothers with sufficient vitamin D levels have offsprings with less enamel defects and less attention deficit and hyperactive disorders and autism. All pregnant women should be supplemented with 600 IU/day of vitamin D3. We discuss evidence indicating that higher vitamin D doses (1000-4000 IU/day) may be convenient to achieve better maternal and infant outcomes. Low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may be associated in infants with a higher risk for lower bone mineral content, enamel defects and attention deficit hyperactive disorder.
Recent evidence from vitamin D intervention studies and meta-analyses of a large number of studies support vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal, fetal and, immediate and later offspring health.