To investigate weight trajectories among patients with severe obesity undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and nonsurgical treatment.
Although bariatric procedures are associated with substantial weight loss, few studies have compared surgical outcomes to nonsurgical treatment, particularly for SG.
In this retrospective, matched cohort study, adult patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m who underwent RYGB or SG procedures from January 2005 through September 2015 were matched to 87,965 nonsurgical patients. Hierarchical linear models were used to investigate percent total weight loss (%TWL) and regain at 5 years among RYGB, SG, and nonsurgical patients, and at 10 years for RYGB and nonsurgical patients.
Among 13,900 SG, 17,258 RYGB, and 87,965 nonsurgical patients, the 5-year follow-up rate was 70.9%, 72.0%, and 64.5%, respectively. At 1 year, RYGB patients had 28.4%TWL (95% confidence interval: 28.2, 28.5), SG 23.0%TWL (22.8, 23.2), and nonsurgical patients 0.2%TWL (0.1, 0.4). At 5 years, RYGB had 21.7%TWL (21.5, 22.0), SG 16.0%TWL (15.4, 16.6), and nonsurgical patients 2.2%TWL (2.0, 2.5). After 5 years, 3.7% of RYGB and 10.1% of SG patients had regained weight to within 5% of baseline. At 10 years, RYGB patients had 20.2%TWL (19.3, 21.0) and nonsurgical patients 4.8%TWL (4.0, 5.5).
In this study, patients with severe obesity who underwent SG and RYGB lost significantly more weight at 5 years than nonsurgical patients. Weight regain was common after surgery but regain to within 5% of baseline was rare.