Little is known about body weight status and the association between body weight and common comorbidities in children and adults with Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs).
Data were extracted from the University of Kansas Medical Center’s Healthcare Enterprise Repository for Ontological Narration clinical integrated data repository. Measures included demographics (sex, age and race), disability diagnosis, comorbid health conditions, height, weight and body mass index percentiles (BMI%ile; <18 years of age) or BMI (≥18 years of age).
Four hundred and sixty-eight individuals with DS (122 children and 346 adults), 1659 individuals with ASD (1073 children and 585 adults) and 604 individuals with other IDDs (152 children and 452 adults) were identified. A total of 47.0% (DS), 41.9% (ASD) and 33.5% (IDD) of children had overweight/obese (OW/OB), respectively. Children with DS were more likely to have OW/OB compared with children with IDD or ASD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.49, 2.46); OR = 1.43, 95% CI: (1.19, 1.72)], respectively. A total of 81.1% (DS), 62.1% (ASD), and 62.4% (IDD) of adults were OW/OB, respectively. Adults with DS were more likely to have OW/OB compared with those with IDD [OR = 2.56, 95% CI: (2.16, 3.02)]. No significant differences were observed by race. In children with ASD, higher OW/OB was associated with significantly higher (compared with non-OW/OB) occurrence of sleep apnoea [OR = 2.94, 95% CI: (2.22, 3.89)], hypothyroidism [OR = 3.14, 95% CI: (2.17, 4.25)] and hypertension [OR = 4.11, 95% CI: (3.05, 5.54)]. In adults with DS, OW/OB was significantly associated with higher risk of sleep apnoea and type 2 diabetes [OR = 2.93, 95% CI: (2.10, 4.09); OR = 1.76, 95% CI: (1.11, 2.79) respectively]. Similarly, in adults with ASD and IDD, OW/OB was significantly associated with higher risk of sleep apnoea [OR = 3.39, 95% CI: (2.37, 4.85) and OR = 6.69, 95% CI: (4.43, 10.10)], type 2 diabetes [OR = 2.25, 95 % CI: (1.68, 3.01) and OR = 5.49, 95% CI: (3.96, 7.61)] and hypertension [OR = 3.55, 95% CI: (2.76, 4.57) and 3.97, 95% CI: (3.17, 4.97)].
Findings suggest higher rates of OW/OB in individuals with DS compared with ASD and IDD. Given the increased risk of comorbidities associated with the increased risk of OW/OB, identification of effective interventions for this special population of individuals is critical.
© 2020 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.