Malaria, respiratory diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cancers and injuries were selected for this analysis. The number of deaths by sex and age groups were obtained from hospital death registers and ICD-10 reporting forms in 39 public hospitals in Tanzania, covering a period of 2006-2015. The life expectancy method and human capital approach were used to estimate the YPLL, YPPLL and CPL due to premature mortality. During 2006-2015, malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, HIV+tuberculosis, cancer and injury were responsible for a total of 96,834 hospital deaths, of which 46.4% (n = 57,508) were among individuals in the productive age groups (15-64 years). The reported deaths contributed to 2,850,928 YPLL (female = 1,326,724; male = 1,524,205) with an average of 29 years per death. The average YPLL among females (32) was higher than among males (28). Malaria (YPLL = 38 per death) accounted for over one-third (35%) of the total YPLL. There was a significant increase in YPLL due to the selected underlying causes of death over the 10-year period. Deaths from the selected causes resulted into 1,207,499 YPPLL (average = 21 per death). Overall, HIV/AIDS contributed to the highest YPPLL (323,704), followed by malaria (243,490) and injuries (196,505). While there was a general decrease in YPPLL due to malaria, there was an increase of YPPLL due to HIV/AIDS, respiratory diseases, cancer and injuries during the 10-year period. The total CPL due to the six diseases was US$ 148,430,009 for 10 years. The overall CPL was higher among males than females by 29.1%. Over half (58%) of the losses were due to deaths among males. HIV/AIDS accounted for the largest (29.2%) CPL followed by malaria (17.8%) and respiratory diseases (14.6%). The CPL increased from US$11.4 million in 2006 to US$17.9 million in 2016.
The YPLL, YPPLL and CPL due to premature death associated with the six diseases in Tanzania are substantially high. While malaria accounted for highest YPLL, HIV/AIDS accounted for highest YPPLL and CPL. The overall CPL was higher among males than among females. Setting resource allocation priorities to malaria, HIV/AIDS and respiratory diseases that are responsible for the majority of premature deaths could potentially reduce the costs of productivity loss in Tanzania.