A phase III dengue vaccine trial including 9- to 16-year-olds in Latin America (CYD15, NCT01374516) was ongoing at the time of a Zika outbreak. We explored interactions between dengue and Zika, in the context of dengue vaccination. Symptomatic virologically confirmed Zika (VCZ) was evaluated using acute-phase sera from febrile CYD15 participants (January 2013-March 2018). Neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were evaluated pre- and post-Zika outbreak (months 25 and 72) in 2,000 randomly selected participants. Baseline dengue serostatus was determined by using the plaque reduction neutralization test or inferred post hoc using nonstructural protein 1 IgG ELISA at M13 (case-cohort analysis). Vaccine efficacy against VCZ and serologically suspected Zika (SSZ) was estimated. Overall, 239/10,157 (2.4%) acute-phase samples were VCZ positive during the study. Dengue vaccine efficacy against VCZ was 27.8% (95% CI: 0.3; 47.7) among baseline dengue-seropositive participants. No vaccine effect was evident against SSZ. Zika antibody GMTs increased from pre- to post-Zika epidemic, with smaller increases observed for participants who were dengue seropositive at baseline than for those who were dengue seronegative: post-/pre-Zika GMT ratios for baseline dengue-seropositive participants were 21.5 (vaccine group) and 30.8 (placebo); and for dengue seronegatives, 88.1 and 89.5, respectively. Dengue antibody GMTs post-Zika were higher in CYD-tetravalent dengue vaccine and placebo recipients with SSZ than those without SSZ in both dengue seropositives and seronegatives. Dengue vaccine does not enhance symptomatic Zika illness in dengue-seropositive individuals, rather it reduces the risk of VCZ. Zika infection boosts preexisting vaccine-induced or naturally occurring dengue-neutralizing antibodies.

References

PubMed