Thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is defined as an immune mediated inflammatory process affecting the extraocular muscles, connective and adipose tissue of uncertain etiopathogenesis. TAO are classically described in Grave’s disease (GD) however it may occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. Those patients usually test positive for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb). For instance, only few cases of severe Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) associated orbitopathy with negative TRAb are reported to date.
Herewith we report a rare case of a middle-aged female who presented with bilateral progressive upper and lower palpebral edema and a unilateral marked proptosis associated with asthenia, headache and decrease in visual acuity. Biological investigation was notable for high levels of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO) in an otherwise euthyroid patient with negative TRAb. Orbital Magnetic resonance imaging revealed edema of the extraocular muscles and inflammation of periorbital soft tissue. The patient received a treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral treatment with prednisone. This regimen was both effective and safe with minimal metabolic side effects in our patient.
Minor ocular manifestations of HT are common; however, severe sight threatening ophtalmopathy in the absence of TRAb is rare. Multiple differential diagnosis should be considered and investigated before diagnosing this rare entity. Management of similar cases is currently based on reports and no clear guidelines have been elaborated, corticosteroids is the mainstream of treatment with a potential benefit of selenium supplementation in mild to moderate cases.

References

PubMed