To investigate the prevalence of five specific periodontal pathogens in the saliva of edentulous patients and to compare the differences in the saliva of dentulous individuals with various periodontal conditions. All the subjects were patients who received regular care at the Beijing Hypertension Prevention and Management Institute. Twenty-seven edentulous patients (edentulous group) were included. According to age (age gap≤5 years), gender, smoking status, diabetes status and hypertension status, each edentulous patient was paired with dentulous individuals suffering from various severity of periodontitis in the same cohort. Then, we selected 3 groups of patients (27 in each group) with no or mild periodontitis (mild group), moderate periodontitis (moderate group) and severe periodontitis (severe group). The whole unstimulated saliva was collected before the periodontal examination. Questionnaire survey and periodontal parameters, including plaque index (PLI), probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL), were examined at mesial-buccal and distal-lingual sites of each tooth respectively. DNA was extracted from each sample of the salivary deposition. (Pg), (Tf), (Td), (Cr) and (Pn) were detected by using PCR method based on 16SrRNA. The prevalence and quantity of the pathogens under various severity of periodontitis were compared. One or more periodontal pathogens could be detected from the 78% (21/27) of the salivary samples in edentulous group. Thereinto, the prevalences of the five periodontal pathogens were ranked as (from high to low): Cr [56% (15/27)], Tf [44% (12/27)], Pn [26% (7/27)], Pg [22% (6/27)] and Td [11% (3/27)]. All five pathogens’ prevalences and Pg, Tf, Td and Pn’s quantities showed statistical differences among the four groups. The numbers of detected bacterial species in the mild, moderate and severe groups were significantly higher than that in the edentulous group (0.01). Furthermore, the prevalences of the red complex in three dentulous groups [96% (26/27) in each group] were significantly higher than the edentulous group [48% (13/27)] (0.05). The proportions of the red complex among all five pathogens (83%) in moderate and severe groups were significantly higher than that in the edentulous group (37%) (0.01). All five periodontal pathogens could be detected in most of the saliva samples from edentulous individuals. Nevertheless, the prevalence and quantity were lower than dentulous individuals.