The ability to combine multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers within a single tissue section facilitates the evaluation and detection of co-expressions, while saving tissue. A newly developed 5x multiplex (MPX) IHC staining of five different IHC markers (Basal cell cocktail (34βE12 + p63), p504s (SP116), ERG (EPR3864), Ki-67 (30-9), PSMA (EP192)) was applied on whole sections of n = 37 radical prostatectomies (RPE) including normal and cancerous tissue. Four different colors including brown, magenta, yellow and teal coded for different stainings, whereas magenta was used twice for nuclear Ki-67 and cytosolic / membranous PSMA. The staining of multiplex IHC was compared to single stains of ERG, PSMA and p504s. The proper staining of the basal cell cocktail and Ki-67 could be assessed by internal positive controls in the multiplex staining. The proportion of PSMA and p504s expression revealed a significant correlation between multiplex and single stains (p < 0.01) as well as a concordant staining pattern for ERG (n = 14 prostate cancers were identified ERG positive with both methods). Our proof of concept study demonstrates a robust staining pattern of all five different antibodies with this newly developed 5x MPX IHC. This approach facilitates the recognition of prostate cancer, in particular by adding PSMA in cases with low p504s expression.
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