The following is the summary of “RNA Sequencing and Gene Ontology Analysis in Acute Invasive Fungal Sinusitis” published in the October 2022 issue of Rhinology and allergy by David, et al.

The paranasal sinus infection known as acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a life-threatening condition that spreads rapidly. No studies have looked at the immune response in the nasal mucosa, which is the point of entrance. The purpose of this RNA sequencing study is to examine gene expression between people with AIFS and people without it in the sinonasal mucosa.

 Between November 2020 and November 2021, sinus tissue samples were prospectively collected from individuals who consented to the study and were scheduled to have surgery. Differential expression analysis and RNA sequencing were used to identify RNA transcriptional variations between patient groups. Those diagnosed with active AIFS, those who had recovered from it, one person with a diagnosis of non-invasive fungal ball, and 4 healthy controls all provided tissue samples for analysis. 255 genes showed significant differences in expression between AIFS patients and controls. 

Differential expression was found between AIFS patients and controls in the following categories of biological activities according to Gene Ontology (GO): Cell adhesion (GO:0007155), collagen fibril organization (GO:0030199), and protein-protein interaction (GO:0001525) (angiogenesis). Sinonasal tissue samples showed transcriptional variations between AIFS and control individuals. To better direct therapy and preventative measures, more research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the differences in gene expression between AIFS and control patients, such as those who are immunosuppressed or who have a history of non-invasive fungal sinusitis.