The effect of the renin angiotensin system on blood pressure (BP) values in young adults from the general population is not well studied. We investigated the relationship between the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and various BP indices in this population.
We assembled a population-based sample of adults aged 25-41 years. Conventional and 24-hour BP recordings were obtained in all patients. Direct renin concentration and plasma aldosterone concentration were measured. Multivariable regression models were constructed to assess the relationships of ARR with BP and hypertension.
We included 1,353 individuals (mean age 37 years, 56% women). The median (interquartile range) ARR, direct renin concentration, and plasma aldosterone concentration were 13.8 (8.7-22.9), 7.2 ng/L (4.4-11.0) and 94 ng/L (68-134). All BP indices were higher across sex-specific ARR quartiles. Per 1-unit increase in log-transformed ARR, the multivariable-adjusted β-coefficients (95% CI) for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic BP were 1.68 (0.87-2.48), P < .0001; 2.40 (1.68-3.12), P < .0001; 2.23 (1.48-2.99), P < .0001; and 2.80 (2.03-3.58), P < .0001, respectively. Per 1-unit increase in log-transformed ARR, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for conventional, 24-hour, sustained and masked hypertension was 1.70 (1.17-2.28), P = .0004; 1.29 (1.06-1.56), P = .01; 1.82 (1.33-2.49), P = .002; and 1.14 (0.94-1.38), P = .20, respectively.
In young adults, ARR was strongly associated with conventional and ambulatory BP. Our data suggest that an aldosterone-driven phenomenon occurs very early in the development of hypertension.

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