Anisakiasis is a zoonosis of parasitic origin whose diffusion seems to be continuously increasing.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of a fish-free diet in patients allergic to Anisakis simplex as well as underlining the importance of awareness and prevention. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the critical issues related to the spread of anisakiasis in relation to eating habits.
Patients were assessed by means of skin prick tests (SPTs) and targeted laboratory testing, with an 18-month-long fish-free diet being recommended in cases of severe sensitization. The degree of awareness about anisakiasis was evaluated from interviews. Patients were subjected to follow-up visits after 18 months.
A total of 70 cases of sensitization to A. simplex were evaluated. The Interview answers highlighted a general state of misinformation among patients and healthy subjects along with a remarkable underestimation of anisakiasis-related risks. An overall lack of care regarding eating habits and diet plans also emerged. In 21 patients affected by severe sensitization, clinical and laboratory evaluations were repeated after 18 months of the subjects being on a fish-free diet. There was a remarkable improvement in serum IgE levels and clinical symptoms.
Data analysis proved the need to implement new and more effective awareness-raising and prevention campaigns in order to reduce the incidence of anisakiasis. It is crucial to establish an adequate diet therapy for sensitized patients. Evaluation of cytokine patterns suggests how a polyphenol-rich regime can activate regulatory T cell function and possibly reduce the allergic and inflammatory components of the disease.

© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.