Following the conventional 12-18 month antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment in Graves’ disease (GD), 50% of patients experience relapse of hyperthyroidism.
The aim of this systematic scoping review was critical appraisal of duration of ATD therapy in the last 80 years.
Articles were identified through the search of PubMed from January 1, 1941 to April 30, 2021. All study types were included. Articles were eligible if they reported data on the length of ATD treatment, particularly thyroid hormones and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) concentrations and specifically those with data on the remission and/or relapse rates.
We described major progress regarding the duration of ATD therapy and related outcomes at every 20 years. Articles of 1941-1960 were mainly concerned with determination of favorable treatment, minimal effective dose, side effects and rate of remission after  60 months could offer a 4-year remission rate of 85%.
Long-term ATD treatment for more than 60 months is safe and effective, has the highest remission rate and cures most patients with GD; hence, it should be considered as the most appropriate duration for ATD therapy in these patients.

© 2021. Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE).