This cross-sectional study investigates the association between insulin resistance (IR) and serum uric acid (sUA) and relative fat (RFM) and lean mass (RLM) profiles in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
RLM and RFM were assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy in 41 children and adolescents. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was defined as normal height-age body mass index and RFM >85th percentile, according to age and sex. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level >95th percentile, according to sex and pubertal stage, and sUA >7 mg/dl were used to define IR and hyperuricemia, respectively.
High RFM (15 patients) and NWO (7 patients) were associated with higher HOMA-IR in total (p < 0.001) and normal-weight patients (p = 0.004), respectively. RFM was positively and RLM negatively correlated to HOMA-IR (rs = 0.500, p = 0.001 and rs = -0.539, p < 0.001, respectively) and sUA (rs = 0.370, p = 0.017 and rs = -0.325, p = 0.038, respectively), while sUA was positively correlated to HOMA-IR (rs = 0.337, p = 0.031). Hyperuricemia (16 patients) was positively associated with higher RFM and HOMA-IR (p = 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively). The correlation between sUA and HOMA-IR lost significance after adjustment for RFM. In logistic regression analysis, a 5% increase in RFM was associated with IR (11 patients) independently of the age, sex, sUA, and CKD stage in both total (OR 2.174, 95% CI 1.115-4.225) and normal-weight (OR 3.504, 95% CI 1.110-11.123) patients.
Children with high RFM, including those presenting NWO, are at risk for IR regardless of CKD stage. RFM is probably the mediator of the link between sUA and IR.