The following is the summary of “Clinical characteristics and outcomes of antibiotic-associated encephalopathy in patients with end-stage kidney disease” published in the October 2022 issue of Renal failure by Huang, et al.

Patients with kidney failure are at a greater risk of developing antibiotic-associated encephalopathy (AAE)  than those without kidney failure. Their study’s objectives were to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AAE in patients with End-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Patients with ESKD who were given intravenous antibiotics at their facility between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015 were the focus of a retrospective analysis. The modified Delphi approach was utilized to make the diagnosis of AAE. People who didn’t have any neurological symptoms were chosen at random as controls. 

Risk variables for AAE and the relationship between AAE and outcome were determined using logistic regression analysis. About 2,104  patients were analyzed in all. Their study found that 4.4% (92/2104) of people had AAE. In addition, Anuria (OR=8.04, 95% CI: 4.13-15.65, P<0.001), a history of a central nervous system disorder (OR=3.03, 95% CI: 1.21-7.56, P=0.018), and hypoalbuminemia (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.01-3.47, P=0.046) were all found to be independent factors associated with AAE in ESKD patients in a multivariate logistic AAE was linked with a composite outcome of in-hospital mortality and treatment withdrawal after adjusting for covariates (OR=4.36, 95% CI: 2.09-9.10, P<0.001).

In patients with ESKD, the incidence of AAE ranged from 4.4% to 6%, depending on the antibiotic used. In ESKD patients, AAE was linked to anuria, a history of central neurological disease, and low albumin levels. Patients with ESKD who also have AAE tend to fare worse.