Two Labrador retriever littermates were identified based on incidentally noted marked microcytosis and inappropriate metarubricytosis. Muscle atrophy was noted and associated with distinctive pathological findings in biopsy samples from 1 dog studied. The disorder represents a rare clinical entity of suspected congenital dyserythropoiesis and polymyopathy. Clinicopathologic changes were similar to a previously reported syndrome of congenital dyserythropoiesis, congenital polymyopathy, and cardiac disease in 3 related English Springer Spaniel (ESS) dogs, but the dogs reported here did not have apparent cardiac disease.
Bone marrow aspiration, electromyography, muscle biopsies, and an echocardiogram were performed on dog 1. Results supported dyserythropoiesis and congenital polymyopathy similar to reports in ESS dogs, but did not identify obvious cardiac disease.
The clinicopathologic changes of dyserythropoiesis and polymyopathy provide an easily recognizable phenotype for what appears to be a low morbidity syndrome. Early recognition may decrease unnecessary testing or euthanasia.

© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.