Bacterial permeability family member A1 (BPIFA1) is one of the most abundant proteins present in normal airway surface liquid (ASL). It is known to be diminished in asthmatic patients’ sputum, which causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). What is currently unclear is how environmental factors, such as allergens’ impact on BPIFA1’s abundance and functions in the context of allergic asthma. House dust mite (HDM) is a predominant domestic source of aeroallergens. The group of proteases found in HDM is thought to cleave multiple cellular protective mechanisms, and therefore foster the development of allergic asthma. Here, we show that BPIFA1 is cleaved by HDM proteases in a time-, dose-, and temperature-dependent manner. We have also shown the main component in HDM that is responsible for BPIFA1’s degradation is Der p1. Fragmented BPIFA1 failed to bind E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and hence elevated TNFα and IL-6 secretion in human whole blood. BPIFA1 degradation is also observed in vivo in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) of mice which are intranasally instilled with HDM. These data suggest that proteases associated with environmental allergens such as HDM cleave BPIFA1 and therefore impair its immune modulator function.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.