Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death and disability. Conventional non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of stable CAD at rest are subject to significant limitations: low sensitivity, and personal expertise. We aimed to develop a reliable and time-cost efficient screening tool for the detection of coronary ischemia using machine learning.
We developed a supervised artificial intelligence algorithm combined with a five lead vectorcardiography (VCG) approach (i.e. Cardisiography, CSG) for the diagnosis of CAD. Using vectorcardiography, the excitation process of the heart can be described as a three-dimensional signal. A diagnosis can be received, by first, calculating specific physical parameters from the signal, and subsequently, analyzing them with a machine learning algorithm containing neuronal networks. In this multi-center analysis, the primary evaluated outcome was the accuracy of the CSG Diagnosis System, validated by a five-fold nested cross-validation in comparison to angiographic findings as the gold standard. Individuals with 1, 2, or 3- vessel disease were defined as being affected.
Of the 595 patients, 62·0% (n = 369) had 1, 2 or 3- vessel disease identified by coronary angiography. CSG identified a CAD at rest with a sensitivity of 90·2 ± 4·2% for female patients (male: 97·2 ± 3·1%), specificity of 74·4 ± 9·8% (male: 76·1 ± 8·5%), and overall accuracy of 82·5 ± 6·4% (male: 90·7 ± 3·3%).
These findings demonstrate that supervised artificial intelligence-enabled vectorcardiography can overcome limitations of conventional non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary ischemia at rest and is capable as a highly valid screening tool.

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