Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis or vomiting and wasting disease in neonatal pigs. Although there are only a few epidemiological studies that document the seroprevalence of PHEV infection, there are reports of sporadic outbreaks, including recent documentation of an influenza-like respiratory disease associated with PHEV in the United States. To address this issue, we have developed a new indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use in sero-epidemiological research of PHEV infection. One hundred and fifty porcine serum samples that were determined as antibody-positive or antibody-negative in virus neutralization (VN) tests were used in conjunction with PHEV-specific antigen extracted from virus-infected FS-L3 cells using RBS buffer containing 0.2% NP-40 to develop this assay. The ELISA showed a high sensitivity (95.35%) and specificity (96.88%) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.996 attesting to its accuracy. Our results revealed a strong correlation between the results of the indirect ELISA and VN test (R = 0.850, P <  0.05), with near-perfect agreement (kappa value = 0.932). These results indicate that this new indirect ELISA might be useful for diagnosis and sero-epidemiological tracking of PHEV infection.
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