Kisspeptin (Kp), a multifunctional neuropeptide critical for initiating puberty and regulating ovulation, was reported to be expressed in mammalian ovaries. Fibronectin (FN), a major secretory product of granulosa cells, provided the extracellular environment for the cumulus cells during maturation. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the potential interplay between FN and Kp in bovine preantral follicles in the context of follicular development and quality. The results showed that Kp significantly reduced the follicular diameters after 14 days in culture, and this was prevented by the addition of FN. Follicles treated with Kp in the presence of FN showed lower levels of apoptotic cells compared to the Kp-treated group. The immunofluorescence analysis showed high levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and caspase 3, and low levels of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase 1 (PARP1) in the Kp-treated group compared to the control and FN-Kp co-treated groups. The protein expression levels of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) increased significantly in the FN and FN-Kp combination treatment groups. Finally, we examined the signal pathway affecting the follicular development after Kp treatment. We detected a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), Sirt1, and PI3K, but the mRNA levels of NF-κB, Caspase3, COX2, P21, and P53 were significantly higher than in the control. Taken together, our results showed the importance of FN for preantral follicle developmental, and, for the first time, we reported that FN could neutralize the deleterious consequences of Kp, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of PI3K/Sirt1 signaling in bovine preantral follicle development.
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