As a natural antiviral regulator, phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) has been shown to inhibit influenza virus replication in infected cells through interacting with NP of influenza A virus (IAV). But its antiviral function as well as the underlying regulatory mechanism has not been examined in vivo. In the present work, we show that PLSCR1 expression is decreased in H1N1 SIV-infected mice, and Plscr1 mice are more susceptible to H1N1 SIV infection. By performing yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified immunoglobulin-like domain-containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) as a novel PLSCR1-binding partner. ILDR1 is highly expressed in the lungs, and its expression level is increased after virus infection. Interestingly, ILDR1 could not directly interact with virus NP protein, but could combine with PLSCR1 competitively. Our data indicates that there is a previously unidentified PLSCR1-ILDR1-NP regulatory pathway playing a vital role in limiting IAV infection, which provides novel insights into IAV-host interactions.
© 2022. The Author(s).