The strategy of treatment for new cases of destructive pulmonary tuberculosis was developed in the Perelman Department of Phthisiopulmonology and Thoracic Surgery of the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. This strategy was applied in the tuberculosis surgical department of the Tambov Regional Dispensary in 2013-2017. A register of patients with pulmonary destruction and bacterial excretion was developed and personal treatment plans were applied. Patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the treatment mode. The main group A consisted of patients who underwent surgical treatment. Surgery was not performed due to failure or discontinuation of treatment in the comparison group B. Group C included patients without indications or with contraindications for surgical treatment.
Treatment efficacy considering destruction cavities closure and abacillation was 97.2% in group A, 41.4% in group B and 39.8% in group C. Surgical approach for patients with destructive tuberculosis reduced the number of patients in the register by 3.3 times (from 516 to 158) within 4 years. A significant reduction of the bacillary core allows breaking the infection chain, that affects the main epidemiological indicators. Reduced incidence of tuberculosis is observed in short-term period, but even greater impact of this factor should be expected in long-term follow-up.
Surgical approach in complex treatment of destructive pulmonary tuberculosis is valuable to improve efficacy of management of these patients and reduce mortality rate.