Saphenous vein graft (SVG) bypass placement is regarded as the optimal option for renal artery stenosis, which usually causes secondary hypertension and poor renal perfusion. Using computational fluid dynamics, this study aimed to investigate the underlying hemodynamic mechanism of the vein aneurysm and stenosis after aortorenal bypass surgery. Three-dimensional models were reconstructed based on computed tomographic angiography images of a 20-year-old female patient who suffered from uncontrollable hypertension using the image processing package Mimics (Materialise). The morphology and hemodynamic parameters in the healthy state, at initial presentation and at post-operative 9-month and 2-year follow-ups after surgery were analysed. The hemodynamic parameters became normal in the left and right renal arteries after bypass surgery. However, flow separation and stagnation occurred at the post-operative 9-month aorta-vein anastomosis, which caused asymmetrical flow and extremely high wall shear stress (WSS) and WSS gradients at the outflow vein tract, where the stenosis occurred 2 years later. In addition, the graft bending produced an asymmetrical flow pattern downstream. This research revealed that the abnormal hemodynamics, including flow separation and extremely high WSS values and gradients, caused by the retrograde flow of aortorenal bypass may be responsible for the SVG degeneration. In addition, flow asymmetry due to vessel bending is a potential risk factor for SVG aneurysm dilation.
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