Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research has demonstrated the potential of these cells to modulate lung inflammatory processes and tissue repair; however, the underlying mechanisms and treatment durability remain unknown. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of human bone marrow-derived MSCs in the inflammatory process and pulmonary remodeling of asthmatic BALB/c mice up to 14 d after transplantation. Our study used ovalbumin to induce allergic asthma in male BALB/c mice. MSCs were injected intratracheally in the asthma groups. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected, and cytology was performed to measure the total protein, hydrogen peroxide (HO), and proinflammatory (IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17A) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) interleukin (IL) levels. The lungs were removed for the histopathological evaluation. On day zero, the eosinophil and lymphochte percentages, total protein concentrations, and IL-13 and IL-17A levels in the BALF were significantly increased in the asthma group, proving the efficacy of the experimental model of allergic asthma. On day 7, the MSC-treated group exhibited significant reductions in the eosinophil, lymphocyte, total protein, HO, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17A levels in the BALF, while the IL-10 levels were significantly increased. On day 14, the total cell numbers and lymphocyte, total protein, IL-13, and IL-17A levels in the BALF in the MSC-treated group were significantly decreased. A significant decrease in airway remodeling was observed on days 7 and 14 in almost all bronchioles, which showed reduced inflammatory infiltration, collagen deposition, muscle and epithelial thickening, and mucus production. These results demonstrate that treatment with a single injection of MSCs reduces the pathophysiological events occurring in an experimental model of allergic asthma by controlling the inflammatory process up to 14 d after transplantation.