The following is a summary of “Human IgE mAbs identify major antigens of parasitic worm infection,” published in the December, 2022 issue of Allergy & Immunology by Hadadianpour, et al.

Studies on allergies have contributed much to the understanding of IgE targets, but little was known about the normal immunogenic targets observed following parasitic worm infections. For a study, researchers sought to characterize the immunodominant antigens that IgE targeted in disorders like allergy or helminth infection related to high IgE levels, and employed human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).

They produced naturally occurring human IgE mAbs by immortalizing IgE-encoding B-cells from the peripheral blood of people with filarial infections and high IgE using human hybridoma technology. IgE production was objectively assessed in B-cell cultures without consideration of specificity. Using ImmunoCAP, immunoblot, and ELISA, isolated IgE mAbs were then examined for their binding ability to Brugia malayi somatic extracts. Identifying the helminth antigens that were subsequently produced in Escherichia coli for IgE binding characterization involved immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and proteomics.

Seven people who had filarial infections provided 56 unique IgE mAbs. They were able to identify 19 filarial antigens from these mAbs positively. All IgE mAbs specifically targeted proteins secreted or expelled by filarial cysts, including a family of previously unidentified proteins. Interestingly, the primary inducer of the IgE antibody response against filaria was transthyretin-related antigens. When passively given to human FcRI-expressing mice, these filaria-specific IgE mAbs were strong anaphylaxis inducers.

They produced human hybridomas from filarial-infected individuals that secrete naturally occurring helminth-specific IgE mAbs. The research offered much-needed information into the development of the immunological response generated by helminths and the IgE antibody response.