Clinical Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a major public health problem, frequently affect the kidneys. In this chapter, we discuss the NTDs which have been most studied in terms of renal involvement and present a summary of current knowledge regarding kidney disease in all NTDs, through a literature review. Epidemiology: There are more than 1 billion people in the world affected by NTDs. These infections can also be one of the etiologies of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause, which is another great public health problem in Latin America, and these diseases are most prevalent in young people, males, in their productive years, which increases its burden on the society. Challenges: Early detection of renal involvement is crucial to decrease the magnitude of the manifestations and hence allow more favorable outcomes, and for this purpose novel kidney injury biomarkers are a promising solution. Unfortunately, specific treatments for NTDs have not changed in the last decades, as novel drugs have not been investigated. Prevention and Treatment: Prevention includes vector control, blood bank tests, periodic serologic surveys, and health surveillance in general in order to decrease oral transmission and to maintain good hygiene conditions. Recently, many potential therapeutic targets have been evidenced in both clinical and experimental studies.
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