Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), including NLRAs, NLRBs (also known as NAIPs), NLRCs, and NLRPs, are a major subfamily of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Owing to a recent surge in research, NLRs have gained considerable attention due to their involvement in mediating the innate immune response and perpetuating inflammatory pathways, which is a central phenomenon in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, including renal diseases. NLRs are expressed in different renal tissues during pathological conditions, which suggest that these receptors play roles in acute kidney injury, obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, crystal nephropathy, uric acid nephropathy, and renal cell carcinoma, among others. This review summarises recent progress on the functions of NLRs and their mechanisms in the pathophysiological processes of different types of renal diseases to help us better understand the role of NLRs in the kidney and provide a theoretical basis for NLR-targeted therapy for renal diseases.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Pharmacological Society.