We measured the content of ROS and malondialdehyde in cells of in vivo drug-resistant murine P388 leukemia strains. It was found that the strains did not differ by malondialdehyde concentration, but intracellular concentration of ROS in cells of the cyclophosphamide-resistant strain (P388/CP) was higher than in cells of the original (P388) and other studied strains (P388/Rub, P388/cPt). Nuclear localization of the transcription factor Nrf2 in cells of strain P388/CP attested to its constitutive activation. Enhanced relative expression of the GCLM gene was found in all studied drug-resistant strains; the expression of the GSR and GPX1 genes was increased only in cells of the cyclophosphamide-resistant strain. These findings suggest that the mechanism of resistance of strain P388/CP is associated with increased activity of glutathione metabolism that developed as a result of activation of the antioxidant response transcription factor Nrf2 against the background of high intracellular concentration of ROS.