The following is a summary of “Clostridioides difficile Infection in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients: Comparisons of Epidemiology, Testing, and Treatment from 2013 to 2019,” published in the JANUARY 2023 issue of Pediatrics by Edwards, et al.

For a study, researchers sought to analyze the prevalence, epidemiology, testing trends, therapies, and results of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among pediatric hospitalized patients between 2013 and 2019.

The International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th edition, codes for diagnoses of CDI with a billing code for an antibiotic therapy related to CDI were searched for in the Pediatric Health Information System database for patient admissions (age 0-17 years).

They discovered 17,142 pediatric patients with CDI, totaling 23,052 hospitalizations. From 2013 and 2019, the adjusted annual CDI incidence fell from 7.09 cases per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 6.15-8.18) to 4.89 cases per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 4.03-5.93) (P< .001). Moreover, during the course of the trial, C difficile-specific tests declined (P< .001).

The two most frequent comorbidities in CDI contacts were chronic gastrointestinal diseases (36%), followed by malignancy (32%). Throughout the research period, oral vancomycin use increased (P< .001) but oral metronidazole use dropped (P< .01).

The findings, which differed significantly from earlier studies in that it shows a decline in CDI incidence in hospitalized pediatric patients, may have been impacted by different testing practices. They discovered a high incidence of CDI among people with cancer and gastrointestinal disorders, two categories that call for a more focused assessment of CDI prevention and therapy.