Symptomatic lymphoceles (SLs) represent the most common complication after radical prostatectomy (RP) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). To date, preoperative risk factors are missing.
Clinical and pathological data of 592 patients who underwent RP and PLND were evaluated. Included parameters were age, BMI, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA ratio, PSA density, number of resected and/or positive lymph nodes, previous abdominal surgery/pelvic radiotherapy, anticoagulation, and surgical approach.
Fifty-nine patients (10%) developed an SL, of which 57 underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) and 2 underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Multivariate logistic regression revealed the following parameters as statistically significant risk factors: PSA (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23; 95% CI [1.25; 5.04], p = 0.04), number of resected lymph nodes (OR = 1.47; 95% CI [1.10; 1.97], p < 0.01), previous abdominal surgery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI [1.38; 4.91], p < 0.01), and surgical approach (OR = 0.08; 95% CI [0.01; 0.27], p < 0.01). Previous oral anticoagulation showed almost statistically significant results (OR = 2.39 [0.92; 5.51], p = 0.05).
The risk for SL might be predictable considering preoperative risk factors such as PSA, previous abdominal surgery and anticoagulation. To avoid SL, RARP should be the procedure of choice. If RRP is considered, patients at risk for SL may benefit from peritoneal fenestration during RP.

© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.