The aim of the present study was to quantify pathogenic bacteria isolated from the subgingival oral-biofilm samples collected from cigarette-smokers and ENDS-users with periodontitis, when compared to non-smokers with and without periodontitis.
Demographic data was collected using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque [PI] and gingival [GI] indices, clinical attachment loss [CAL], probing depth [PD] and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Subgingival oral bio-film samples were collected and assessed for periodontopathogenic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [A. actinomycetemcomitans], Prevotella intermedia [P. intermedia], Porphyromonas gingivalis [P. gingivalis], Tannerella forsythia [T. forsythia] and Treponema denticola [T. denticola]). Group-comparisons were performed; and P < 0.01 were considered statistically significant.
All cigarette-smokers, ENDS-users and non-smokers with periodontitis had Grade-B periodontitis. The CFU/mL of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P < 0.001) and P. gingivalis (P < 0.001) were significantly higher among cigarette-smokers (P < 0.01) and ENDS-users (P < 0.01) than non-smokers with periodontitis. The CFU/mL of T. denticola were significantly higher among cigarette-smokers (P < 0.001), ENDS-users (P < 0.001) and non-smokers with periodontitis (P < 0.001) compared with non-smokers without periodontitis. There was no statistically significant difference in the CFU/mL of P. intermedia and T. denticola among cigarette-smokers, ENDS-users and non-smokers with periodontitis.
Counts of periodontopathogenic bacteria in the subgingival oral-biofilm are comparable among cigarette-smokers and individuals using ENDS.
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