Iron deficiency commonly contributes to the anemia affecting individuals with chronic kidney disease. Diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease are explained. Mechanisms of functional and absolute iron deficiency and general treatment Principles as delineated in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines are reviewed. Repletion of absolute iron deficits has progressed over time with the addition of better tolerated, more effective oral agents including ferric citrate, ferric maltol, and sucrosomial iron. Structural characteristics and trial data enabling regulatory approval of these novel oral agents are examined. Newer intravenous iron therapies including ferric carboxymaltose and ferric derisomaltose allow for fewer infusions and decreased risk of serious hypersensitivity reactions. Concerns about adverse events including cardiovascular events and infections are discussed. The potential risk of 6H syndrome due to these intravenous agents, including hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia, and pathologic fractures is emphasized. The proposed pathophysiology of 6H syndrome and hypophosphatemia is described. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate enables administration of iron for repletion through dialysate. Relative merits, costs, and risks of various iron agents such as hypersensitivity and 6H syndrome/hypophosphatemia are summarized.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.