Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disease with a high incidence among women of childbearing age. Recent studies have reported that women with AIT are more susceptible to infertility, miscarriage and preterm birth. It has been investigated that abnormal changes in maternal immune system and maternal-fetal interface can dampen the immune tolerance between mother and fetus, which underlie the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, we summarize the immunological changes related to adverse reproductive outcomes in AIT and highlight the respective contributions of both humoral and cellular immune dysfunctions to pregnancy failures. Moreover, the direct impacts of AIT on maternal-fetal immune activation and biological influences to trophoblasts are discussed as well. All these associations require confirmation in larger studies, and the pathogenic mechanisms need to be better understood, which might provide useful information for clinical diagnosis and therapy of AIT.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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Kahindo P Muyayalo