The study aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RPILD) associated with the anti-Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5-positive dermatomyositis (DM) syndrome.
The task force comprised an expert panel of specialists in rheumatology, intensive care medicine, pulmonology, immunology, and internal medicine. The study was carried out in two phases: identifying key areas in the management of DM-RPILD syndrome and developing a set of recommendations based on a review of the available scientific evidence. Four specific questions focused on different treatment options were identified. Relevant publications in English, Spanish or French up to April 2018 were searched systematically for each topic using PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (Wiley Online). The experts used evidence obtained from these studies to develop recommendations.
A total of 134 studies met eligibility criteria and formed the evidentiary basis for the recommendations regarding immunosuppressive therapy and complementary treatments. Overall, there was general agreement on the initial use of combined immunosuppressive therapy. Combination of high-dose glucocorticoids and calcineurin antagonists with or without cyclophosphamide is the first choice. In the case of calcineurin antagonist contraindication or treatment failure, switching or adding other immunosuppressants may be individualized. Plasmapheresis, polymyxin B hemoperfusion and/or intravenous immunoglobulins may be used as rescue options. ECMO should be considered in life-threatening situations while waiting for a clinical response or as a bridge to lung transplant.
Thirteen recommendations regarding the treatment of the anti-MDA5 positive DM-RPILD were developed using research-based evidence and expert opinion.

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