Female reproductive aging is, in a way, a biological phenomenon that develops along canonical molecular pathways; however, it has particular features. Recent studies revealed complexity of the interconnections between reproductive aging and aging of other systems, and even suggested a cause-effect uncertainty between them. It was also shown that reproductive aging can impact aging processes in an organism at the level of cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Women at the end of their reproductive lives are characterized by the accelerated incidence of age-related diseases. Timing of the onset of menarche and menopause and variability in the duration of reproductive life carry a latent social risk: not having enough information about the reproductive potential, women keep on postponing childbirth. Identification and use of the most accurate and sensitive aging biomarkers enable the prediction of menopause timing and quantification of the true biological and reproductive ages of an organism. We discuss current views on reproductive aging and peculiarities of using available biomarkers of aging. We also consider latest advances in the search for potential genetic markers of reproductive aging. Finally, we posit the importance of determining the female biological age and highlight potential research directions in this area.