House dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has proven to be effective for allergic rhinitis (AR), but its efficacy varies among patients. No candidate biomarkers for prediction of response to SLIT are available. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is involved in pathophysiology of AR, and its serum levels reflect airway allergic inflammation.
To evaluate the relationship between serum periostin levels and current rhinitis control before and after standardized quality (SQ)-HDM SLIT, and to investigate the role of periostin in predicting clinical response.
One hundred eleven subjects with HDM-induced AR were randomized to receive either SLIT plus pharmacotherapy or pharmacotherapy alone, for 48 weeks. At enrollment and the end of study, clinical characteristics and biomarkers that included serum periostin, serum HDM-specific IgE (s-IgE), total IgE, blood eosinophil counts and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) were measured. Association between clinical indices or biomarkers and clinical response to SLIT were analyzed.
A response to SLIT was recorded in 64% (32 of 50) patients. High serum periostin levels (> 30.2 ng/mL) was associated with an effective response to SLIT, and the magnitude of RQLQ improvement was correlated with the level of serum periostin. The sensitivity and specificity based on receiver operating characteristic analysis for periostin were higher than those of s-IgE. Multivariate regression analysis showed that serum periostin was independent factor for SLIT responders.
Serum periostin appears to be a useful biomarker for predicting the response to SQ- HDM SLIT in patients with AR.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.