Stem cells constitute a group of cells which possess the ability for self-renewal as well as the capacity of differentiation into a vast number of different cells within the human organism. Moreover, stem cells are able to undergo a potentially unlimited number of divisions and this characteristic is clinically essential. Specific fields of its application include treatment of diseases mainly in the field of hematology, orthopedics, surgery, dentistry, and neurology.
In the following work, the current knowledge concerning mechanisms of stem cell treatment in different parts of the digestive system with its diseases as well as adjacent therapy for surgery has been revised.
Stem cells therapy may be used in the treatment of various diseases of different parts of the digestive system. This also applies to the end part of the digestive tract (proctological diseases) because stem cells can be used to treat fistulas. Liposuction allows more recovery of mesenchymal stem cells, compared to previous bone marrow harvesting methods. Despite the application of stem cells in the treatment of different diseases used for many years so far, the therapeutic use for the regeneration of the gastrointestinal tract is still rare and unfamiliar.
Regenerative medicine seems to be a promising tool in medical research, especially when insulated cells and designed biomaterials are taken into consideration. Major points of discussion include type of stem cells, stem or differentiation for the treatment of many diseases.