Primary cardiac tumors comprise a distinct category of disorders that result in significant cardiac complications. Primary cardiac lymphomas (PCLs) constitute the second most frequent primary malignancy involving the heart. Without treatment, survival may be limited to just a few months; however, a timely therapeutic schedule may prolong the five-year survival. Accordingly, robust diagnostic modalities are essential to improve prognosis. We herein review the literature available in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google Scholar and Scopus databases. Our review demonstrated that cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employ multiple advanced sequences for tumor characterization with or without a contrast agent. These methods assist not only in differentiating PCLs from other cardiac masses such as cardiac thrombi but also in defining the extent of PCLs and conducting a safe biopsy. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and CT imaging provide essential knowledge regarding PCLs and cardiotoxicity induced by therapeutic regimens. The application of these robust imaging modalities aids in the early diagnosis of PCLs, accelerates the initiation of the treatment program, and improves patient outcomes significantly. Also presented is our introduction into novel techniques and the feasibility of their use to diagnose and treat cardiac masses, particularly PCLs. It should be mentioned that the paramount role of FDG-PET was not the focus of this paper.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.