The oral administration of isoniazid (INH) may lead to discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment due to drug-related hepatotoxicity events, and thus, the transbuccal delivery of this drug was investigated, for the first time, as an alternative administration route. Ex vivo permeability assays were performed in Franz-type diffusion chambers, applying INH alone and in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium taurocholate (ST). After confirming the formation of micelle structures by dynamic light scattering analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy and zeta potential analyses were used to investigate drug-micelle interactions. In zeta potential analyses, no electrostatical interactions were identified for both surfactants in saliva buffer pH 6.8. Spectrophotometric analyses, in turn, indicated chemical interactions between INH and SDS in both pH values (2.0 and 6.8) whereas no interaction between the drug and ST was observed. Despite the interaction between SDS and drug, this surfactant increased the buccal transport rate of INH by approximately 11 times when compared with the control. In contrast, ST did not increase the drug permeability. The INH retention in SDS-treated mucosa was significantly higher when compared with the control and an effect on intercellular lipids was suggested. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the high INH absorption found here. Grapical abstract.