p-Cresyl sulfate (PCS), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) are uremic toxins found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) that are closely related to endothelial extracellular vesicles (EVs) formation. The present study aimed to understand the role of EVs and their role in cell adhesion and migration, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Human endothelial cells were treated with PCS, IS, and Pi in pre-established uremic and kinetic recommendations. EVs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and NanoSight assays. The concentrations of EVs were established using Alamar Blue and MTT assays. Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using an adhesion assay. Inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression/monocyte migration and reactive oxygen species production, respectively. The capacity of EVs to stimulate endothelial cell migration was evaluated using a wound-healing assay. Our data showed that endothelial cells stimulated with uremic toxins can induce the formation of EVs of different sizes, quantities, and concentrations, depending on the uremic toxin used. Cell adhesion was significantly (P < 0.01) stimulated in cells exposed to PCS-induced extracellular vesicles (PCSEVs) and inorganic phosphate-induced extracellular vesicles (PiEVs). Cell migration was significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated by PCSEVs. VCAM-1 expression was evident in cells treated with PCSEVs and IS-induced extracellular vesicles (ISEVs). EVs are not able to stimulate monocyte migration or oxidative stress. In conclusion, EVs may be a biomarker of endothelial injury and the inflammatory process, playing an important role in cell-to-cell communication and pathophysiological processes, although more studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of EVs in uremia.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.