Abnormal increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), otherwise known as renal hyperfiltration (RHf), is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality. Although it is not considered as a disease alone in medicine today, early detection of RHf is essential to reducing risk in a timely manner. However, detecting RHf is a challenge since it does not have a practical biochemical marker that can be followed or quantified. In this study, we tested the ability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish 17 individuals with RHf (hyperfiltraters; RHf (+)), from 20 who have normal GFR (normofiltraters; RHf(-)), using urine samples. Spectra collected from hyperfiltraters were significantly different from the control group at positions 1621, 1390, 1346, 933 and 783/cm. Intensity changes at these positions could be followed directly from the absorbance spectra without the need for pre-processing. They were tentatively attributed to urea, citrate, creatinine, phosphate groups, and uric acid, respectively. Using principal component analysis (PCA), major peaks of the second derivative forms for the classification of two groups were determined. Peaks at 1540, 1492, 1390, 1200, 1000 and 840/cm were significantly different between the two groups. Statistical analysis showed that the spectra of normofiltraters are similar; however, those of hyperfiltraters show diversity at multiple positions that can be observed both from the absorbance spectra and the second derivative profiles. This observation implies that RHf can simultaneously affect the excretion of many substances, and that a spectroscopic analysis of urine can be used as a rapid and non-invasive pre-screening tool.
© 2022. The Author(s).