The following is a summary of “Disease-specific urinary biomarkers in the central nervous system,” published in the November 2023 issue of Neurology by Duggins-Warf et al.
While urinary biomarkers can detect and monitor central nervous system (CNS) disorders, research focusing on individual diseases has limited the broader applicability of this approach. Researchers performed a retrospective study to identify and characterize disease-specific urinary biomarker patterns for CNS diseases.
Urine samples were obtained from 218 patients with confirmed tumors or cerebrovascular disease and 33 control samples. The levels of 21 potential urinary biomarkers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and bead-based multiplexing.
The analysis identified biomarkers that distinguish each disease from controls and other diseases. Mann–Whitney U tests pinpointed biomarkers with significant differential expression between disease types and controls (P ≤ 0.001). Subsequent receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed these distinguishing biomarkers, with Areas under the curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.8563 to 1.000 (P values ≤ 0.0003). Sensitivities varied from 80.00% to 100.00%, and specificities ranged from 80.95% to 100.00%.
The study confirmed the existence of disease-specific urinary biomarker signatures, paving the way for improved diagnosis, less invasive monitoring, and potential therapeutic targets.