Approximately 60% of all human pathogens and 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic (of animal origin). Camel zoonotic diseases can be encountered in all camel-rearing countries. In this article, all studies carried out on camel zoonotic diseases in Iran are reviewed to show the importance of camels for public health in this country. More than 900 published documents were systematically searched to find relevant studies from 1,890 until late 2018. The collected articles were classified according to the aetiological agents. In this study, 19 important zoonotic diseases were reported among Iranian camels including listeriosis, leptospirosis, plague, Q fever, brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, Escherichia coli infections, rabies, camelpox, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, echinococcosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis and dermatophytosis, most of which belong to bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal pathogens, respectively. Results show that camels are one of the most important sources of infections and diseases in human; therefore, continuous monitoring and inspection programs are necessary to prevent the outbreak of zoonotic diseases caused by this animal in humans.
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