To develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR spectroscopy) device to diagnose testicular torsion with high sensitivity and specificity. Specifically, we aim to investigate the differentiation between testicular torsion from other pathologies such as orchidoepididymitis, varicocele, and hydrocele.
Two LEDs with wavelengths of 660 nm and 940 nm were used as light sources in the device. Each wavelength was sent to the testicle successively, and a photodiode detected back-reflected diffuse light. The ratio of the light intensities of 660 nm to 940 nm was used as a diagnostic parameter. A multi-center clinical trial was performed in five different hospitals.
In total, 62 patients in urology clinics with acute testicular pain have been recruited for the study. The developed NIR spectroscopy correctly defined all eight testicular torsion cases. Besides, three orchidoepididymitis, one varicocele, and three hydrocele cases were correctly distinguished from testicular torsion. Only one hydrocele case was misdiagnosed as a torsion. The range of the ratio was between 0.14-1.16 overall measurements. The ratio varied between 0.14-0.3 for the testicle with torsion. The ratio was between 0.49-1.16 for the normal testicle and testicle with other pathologies mentioned above.
We have chosen the threshold ratio of 0.4 to differentiate between the normal and torsion testis and diagnosed all the torsion cases among all normal and other pathologies. The developed optical device to diagnose testicular torsion is inexpensive, user-friendly, and works based on objective criteria with high sensitivity and specificity in real time.

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