The following is a summary of “Gender and socioeconomic disparities in global burden of chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis: A global analysis,” published in the March 2023 issue of Nephrology by Bai, et al.

For a study, researchers sought to investigate gender and socioeconomic disparities in the global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) caused by glomerulonephritis from 1990 to 2019.

The study extracted data from the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) 2019 study, including incidence, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were calculated to measure the temporal trends in the age-standardized rate (ASR) of CKD due to glomerulonephritis. Paired t-tests, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Spearman correlations were used to analyze gender disparities and the association of CKD due to glomerulonephritis.

The study found that globally, incident cases of CKD due to glomerulonephritis increased to 81% from 9,557,397 in 1990 to 17,308,071 in 2019. The age-standardized incidence rate increased by 1.47 compared with 1990, and DALYs increased by 1.35 compared with 1990 (per 100,000). More than 55% of total cases of CKD due to glomerulonephritis were found in low-middle SDI (3,829,917) and middle SDI (6,268,817) regions. The study revealed that CKD due to glomerulonephritis caused a higher burden, including the incidence rate (P < .0001) and DALY rate (P < .0001) in men compared to women. The age-standardized DALY rate was negatively correlated with SDI (ρ = −0.64, P < .001). In the analysis of DALY risk factors, male individuals had a larger burden of hypertension, high BMI, and high sodium diet in the DALY rates than female subjects.

The study concluded that the burden of CKD due to glomerulonephritis was skewed towards developing and less developed economies and differed by gender, indicating the need for focused and targeted policies in certain nations.